The position of Jews in Britain after 1656 was ambiguous. Although the Whitehall Conference of 1655 agreed that there was no legal impediment to Jewish return, Jewish re-admission had not been officially effected. Sephardi Jews living in London were in a precarious situation as foreigners with no legal rights. There were several areas of danger: Jewish merchants were involved with political events within Cromwell’s English Republic and subsequently with the restored monarchy. They also became enmeshed in tangled relationships between the competing ambitions of England, Spain, Portugal and Holland.
Listen: Cromwell, Charles II and the Jews,
by Antonia Fraser, 1980
Listen: The Great Plague of 1655, by Colin Shindler
Foreigners With No Rights