The position of a Jewish presence in England and Britain after 1656 is ambiguous. Although the Whitehall Conference agreed in 1665 that there was no legal impediment to Jewish return Jewish re-admission had not been officially effected. Sephardi Jews were in a precarious situation as foreigners with no legal rights. There were several areas of danger. Jewish merchants were involved with political events within Cromwell’s English Republic and subsequently with the restored monarchy. They became enmeshed in tangled relationships between the competing ambitions of England, Spain, Portugal and Holland.
Listen: Cromwell, Charles II and the Jews,
by Antonia Fraser, 1980
Listen: The Great Plague of 1655, by Colin Shindler